The invention of the zipper and development history
The zipper is also called the zip. It is one of the ten great inventions in modern convenient people’s life.
The emergence of the zipper is a century ago. At that time, in some parts of central Europe, people tried to through the belt, hook and loop can replace buttons and bowknot, then begin to test in the development of the zipper. The zipper first used in military uniform. For the first time in the first world war, the army ordered a large number of zipper make clothing for soldiers. But the zipper in folk have a relatively late promotion, it was not until 1930 was accepted by the women, used instead of buttons on the dress.
Now the name of the zipper is in 1926. It is reported that a man named franco novelist, in promoting a zipper samples at a business luncheon said: “a la, it will open! Again, it was shut!” Very concisely illustrates the characteristics of the zipper. The term zipper is this way.
The invention of the zipper, originally comes from the people wear boots. The mid-nineteenth century, long boots is very popular, especially suitable for the muddy or horse waste road, but the downside is that the iron hook type of boots buttons up to more than 20, dress is very time consuming. The flaws make inventor hurt a bad headache, and took sponsors a lot of money and patience. To wear boots off of trouble, people suffer even wear boots the day off. Finally in 1851, americans, Alice (Elias Howe) applied for a similar zipper design patent, but did not commercialization, or even forgotten for half a century.
1893 (Monday) in 1893, an American engineers called Judson (Kuwait), developed a “sliding’s device”, and was granted a patent, the zipper initial form. The appearance of the device to use buckle button hook on high boots. But this invention does not catch on quickly, the main reason is that this early locking device quality closes nevertheless, easy in not the right time and place to loosen, make people embarrassed.
In 1913, the Swedish samba, improved the locking device of the rough, make it become a reliable product. He used way is to put the metal lock gear attached to a flexible shaft. The working principle of this kind of zipper is: each tooth is a small hook, with next to each other and relatively another strap on a small tooth hole match below. The zipper is strong, can only open when slider sliding to open.
Until the 1890 s was turning a corner, a mechanical engineer from Chicago Witt kang, l. Zhu Disen (prompting l. Judson), think of using a sliding device (the slider – device) to Mosaic and separate two rows of buttons (the principle and the zipper is approximate, but about the zipper/zipper the term of 30 years to appear). Zhu Disen invention, fortunately for Pennsylvania attorney Louise Walker (Walker) Lewis financial support. Walker has highly interest in Zhu Disen new design.
During the first world war, the U.S. economy is very bad, five cents per pound, steel workers wages for six dollars a week, streamline company layoffs, only baker and another staff, Mr Baker of managers and engineers. Company economy encountered unprecedented difficulties, provide wire repay if Berlin company thousands of dollars in loans, Mr Baker had to repair a machine to produce paper clips to make money. Fortunately, sponsors are always appear constantly, The father of The playwright James O ‘neill (James O ‘neill) of The circuit “The Count of Monte Cristo” (The Count of Monte Cristo) a drama, he told Mr Baker oprah clasp zipper very interested.
Career although have changed, but Mr Baker had suffered an unprecedented blow, his wife died during childbirth. Mr Baker, a sad, more devoted to improve zipper. In 1913, he again to apply for patents, patent license approval (patent no. 1219881) in 1917. Walker says the patent as “hidden hooks” (hidden hook), the outlook is optimistic. Walker, the name of the Company to “no hook type button Company” (Hookless Fastener Company, factory migration may, (Meadville).
Mr Baker further improved without hook type buttons, tooth shape to change into a spoon, the top is convex and concave shape at the end, the sliding device one slip and you can make the left and right sides “dentate part” Mosaic, then slip back to separate, known as the “no hook type ii, and design the manufacturing dentate parts of the machine. In 1913 he was officially declared the technology breakthrough. The journal of the American academy of science to Mr Baker’s patent for the cover story.
After six months, Mr Baker ready for mass production this kind of button, no hook type ii listed.
Walker’s second son also spent eight years work in the modified without hook type button. Florida Josephine card hong (Josephine Calhoun) in 1907 to apply for a similar security zipper’s patents. That same year, Colorado Frank kay felt (Frank Canfielt) is also applied for a patent. www.clothinglablesjz.com finishing. Committed to this aspect research inventor not only appeared in the United States, among them and finally finished the nearest baker has kun wood of Zurich (Katharina Kuhn – Moos) and foster (Henri Forster) reserved in 1912, however, are not like no hook type 2 become a commodity.
The demand of the market determine the success or failure of the product. No hook type ii first order is not much. Pittsburgh’s John McCrae (Mcreery) department store think no hook type ii is very suitable for use on the dress and suit, requiring manufacturers shall use no hook type 2, but few imitators, dare not adventure with the new products. Mr Baker for customers, continuously improve performance to adapt to the needs of the zipper.
Mei, factory manufacturing technology is consummate, every article make 1630 hook type 2, and no defective products, orders increased. The first world war also brought new opportunities for new products, military assigns a money belt that no hook type ii demand; Air force flight with no hook type ii not only can save material, and wind effect is better; Navy jackets also USES no hook type ii. The government then earmarked for metal materials for production.
No hook type ii is proved to be good, but the price is on the high side still can’t spread, baker know this, and is committed to reduce the production cost, improve production efficiency. He invented the S – L machine, reduce the unnecessary waste of material in the process of production, as long as the original material of 41 ℅. Reduce the production cost, application is the first product, tai (Locktite) tobacco pouch, sales very successful as a result, the end of 1921, tobacco companies need a week without hook type ii number reached an unprecedented number. In order to meet the high demand, no hook type button company and build a new factory.
1921 Ohio very Company (B.F.G oodrich Company) to order a small amount of products without hook type buttons, used in their production of rubber overshoes. Found that effect is good after trial, and a large number of orders, and will find shortcoming told no hook type button. Company after modified with wonderful boots (Mystery Boot), its characteristic is just pull can wear or take off.
Marketers of magical boots call very not satisfied, want to find a can display the name of its characteristics, manager for inspiration, thought of the onomatopoeia words “Zip” – the voice of the fast moving objects, wonderful boots will be renamed as Zipper, Zipper boots (see figure 2), the year is 1923, then “Zipper” — “Zipper” has become all the floorboard of the similar buttons without hook type products. Unfortunately, Zhu Disen died in 1909, the front have never heard the term “slide fastener”, also did not see his invention in successful popular all over the world.
That winter very company sold nearly five hundred thousand double zipper boots and mid 20 s to buy buttons without hook type one million every year of the zipper, no hook type button company: “no hook type” is a word with negative connotations, and the word “zipper” set for very company, therefore, and come up with (Talon) the term “eagle”, in 1937 the company changed its name to talons.
Before 1930, no hook type button company can sell 20 million of the “eagle”, a year application range hood from pen box to motor boats. But not use garment industry still wait and see. Until the mid 30 s, fashion designers, issa scarpa, riley (Elsa Schiaparelli) “eagle” has been widely used for the first time, the New Yorker (New Yorker) described in the spring of 1935 exhibit, “hang full zipper”. Since then, the garment industry will grow with zipper.
Zipper manufacturing technology as the products have been gradually spread all over the world, Switzerland, Germany and other European countries, Japan, China and other Asian countries successively started zipper production workshop.
Pass into Japan in 1917, zipper, zipper due to scarce at that time, only to show off their identity as a nobleman act the role ofing is tasted. Showa early in 1927, Hiroshima county road flyover tail began to make zipper, begins with a “jig” brand trademark pin out. At that time, the zipper is noted for its strong and durable, so the “jig” has become synonymous with zipper. So far, the Japanese are still called “zipper” “clamp”.
Hand-made large zipper Japan started in 1932. Due to very advanced at the time such as eccentric hand press machine are constantly developed, enables the zipper to mass production, the price is falling, clothing and work began to use zipper, make the industry outlook is very active.
In 1934, Shanghai, Hong Kong, the United States zipper products began to bulk export outward. Japanese yoshida industrial co., the predecessor of the “three” S chamber of commerce in January 1 this year.
1937 years later, North America and central and South America zipper pin out a lot. Zipper finally take the form of emerging industries, also, zipper industry in Japan have become the important role. But, in 1941, an outbreak of the Pacific war, Japan eventually being burdened, war to Japan’s domestic industry, including a devastating blow, zipper industry at that time, in addition to the part of military zipper industry to stay outside, other works have been turned on or about the waste industry